Igor Efimov

Headshot of Igor Efimov
Title:
Department Chair, Alisann and Terry Collins Professor of Biomedical Engineering
Office:
SEH 5000C | Office Hours: R: 10:00 am - 12:00 pm
Phone:
202-994-2152
Email:
efimov@gwu.edu
Website:
http://efimovlab.org/

 

Professor Igor Efimov is chairman of GW's Department of Biomedical Engineering and director of the NIH-funded Cardiovascular Engineering Laboratory. His lab studies the physiological and biophysical mechanisms of cardiovascular disease and develops novel therapies for heart diseases, with emphasis on heart rhythm and heart failure-related disorders. In 2008, Dr. Efimov co-founded Cardialen, Inc. to develop low energy cardioversion therapy, with a primary focus on atrial fibriliation. 

The Efimov laboratory investigates the arrhythmogenic and metabolic mechanisms of physiological remodeling during heart failure using human donor hearts, which are rejected for transplantation and human end-stage failing hearts procured at the time of transplantation. The major focus of these investigations is to identify biological mechanisms of cardiac remodeling specific to humans. Professor Efimov's lab applies an array of state-of-the-art methodologies, including fast fluorescence imaging with voltage-, calcium, mitochondrial potential-, and other sensitive dyes. They also apply novel 3D dual beam imaging, which allows nano-imaging of cellular structure in human myocytes, which is disrupted during chronic heart diseases, including heart failure and atrial fibrillation.   

Their research is also focused on development of new generation of bioelectronics, based on flexible and stretchable electronics platform developed by their collaborator Dr. John Rogers from UIUC. This revolutionary electronics allows developing high-definition implantable organ conformal and wearable devices for diagnostics and therapy of variety of diseases, as well as for physiological monitoring of health during work, exercise, and other normal and stressful conditions. They aim to develop new generation of implantable and interventional cardiac devices for high-definition diagnostics and treatment of arrhythmias, ischemia, heart failure, and other diseases.

 

  • B.S./M.Sc., Physics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 1986
  • Ph.D., Biophysics/BME, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 1992
  • Postdoctoral, University of Pittsburgh, PA 1994

Last 5 years 2011-2015

  • Ambrosi CM, Ripplinger CM, Efimov IR, Fedorov VV. Termination of sustained atrial flutter and fibrillation using low energy multiple shock therapy. Heart Rhythm. 2011 Jan; 8(1): 101-8. PMID: 20969974.
  • Greener I, Monfredi O, Inada I, Chandler N, Tellez J, Atkinson A, Taube MA, Billeter R, Anderson R; Efimov IR, Molenaar P, Sigg D, Sharma V, Boyett M, Dobrzynski H, Molecular architecture of the human specialized atrioventricular conduction axis. JMCC, 2011, 50(4): 642-51. PMID: 21256850.
  • Lou Q, Fedorov VV, Glukhov AV, Fast VG, Moazami N, Efimov IR, Heterogeneity and Remodeling of Transmural Ventricular Excitation-Contraction Coupling in Human Heart Failure. Circulation, 2011, 123(17): 1881-90, PMID: 21502574.
  • Fedorov VV, Glukhov AV, Kostecki G, Chang R, Janks D, Schuessler RB, Moazami N, Nichols CG, Efimov IR. Effects of KATP channel openers diazoxide and pinacidil in coronary-perfused atria and ventricles from failing and non-failing human hearts. JMCC, 2011, Aug; 51(2):215-25. PMID: 21586291.
  • Lou Q, Li W, Efimov IR. Multiparametric Optical Mapping of the Langendorff-perfused Rabbit Heart. J. Vis. Exp. 2011, 55: e3160, DOI: 10.3791/3160.
  • Lang D, Sulkin M, Lou Q, Efimov IR. Optical Mapping of Action Potentials and Calcium Transients in the Mouse Heart. J. Vis. Exp. 2011, 55: e3275, DOI: 10.3791/3275.
  • Fedorov VV, Ambrosi CM, Kostecki G, Hucker WJ, Glukhov AV, Wuskell J, Loew LM, Moazami N, Efimov IR, Anatomic Localization and Autonomic Modulation of AV Junctional Rhythm in Failing Human Hearts, Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2011; 4(4): 515-25. PMID: 21646375.
  • Bordas R, Gillow K, Lou Q, Efimov IR, Gavaghan D, Kohl P, Grau V, Rodriguez B, Full Rabbit-Specific Ventricular Model of Cardiac Electrophysiological Function including Specialized Conduction System, Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 2011, 107(1): 90-100. PMID: 21672547.
  • Swaminathan PD, Purohit A, Soni S, Voigt N, Singh MV, Glukhov AV, Gao Z, He JB, Luczak ED, Joiner MA, Kutschke W, Yang J, Donahue JK, Weiss RM, Grumbach IM, Ogawa M, Chen PS, Efimov IR, Dobrev D, Mohler PJ, Hund TJ, Anderson ME, Oxidized CaMKII causes cardiac sinus node dysfunction in mice, JCI, 2011, Aug 1; 121(8): 3277-88. PMID: 21785215.
  • Lang D, Glukhov AV, Efimova T, Efimov IR. Cardiac Arrhythmia in Calcium-dependent Tyrosine Kinase Pyk2 Knock-out Mice, Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011 Sep; 301(3): H975-83. PMID: 21666110.
  • Quinn TA, Granite S, Allessie MA, Antzelevitch C, Bollensdorff C, Bub G, Burton RAB, Cerbai E, Chen PS, Delmar M, DiFrancesco D, Earm YE, Efimov IR, Egger M, Entcheva E, Fink M, Fischmeister R, Franz MR, Garny A, Giles WR, Hannes T, Harding SE, Hunter PJ, Iribe G, Jalife J, Johnson CR, Kass RS, Kodama I, Koren G, Lord P, Markhasin VS, Matsuoka S, McCulloch AD, Mirams GR, Morley GE, Nattel S, Noble D, Olesen SP, Panfilov AV, Trayanova NA, Ravens U, Richard S, Rosenbaum DS, Rudy Y, Sachs F, Sachse FB, Saint DA, Schotten U, Solovyova O, Taggart P, Tung L, Varró A, Volders PG, Wang K, Weiss JN, White E, Wilders R, Winslow RL, Kohl P, Minimum Information about a Cardiac Electrophysiology Experiment (MICEE): Standardised Reporting for Model Reproducibility, Interoperability, and Data Sharing, Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 2011 Oct;107(1):4-10. PMID: 21745496
  • Lang D, Petrov V, Lou Q, Osipov G, Efimov IR, Spatio-temporal control of the heart rate in the rabbit heart. Journal of Electrocardiology, 2011, 2011 Nov-Dec; 44(6): 626-34. PMID: 21937057.
  • Li W, Janardhan AH, Fedorov VV, Sha Q, Schuessler RB, Efimov IR, Low Energy Multi-Stage Atrial Defibrillation Therapy Terminates Atrial Fibrillation With Less Energy Than a Single Shock. Circulation: Electrophysiology and Arrhythmia, 2011, 4(6): 917-25. PMID: 21980076.
  • Smith AW, Segar CE, Nguyen PK, MacEwan MR, Efimov IR, Elbert DL, Long term culture of HL-1 cardiomyocytes in modular poly(ethylene glycol) microsphere-based scaffolds crosslinked in the phase separated state. Acta Biomaterialia. 2012 Jan; 8(1): 31-40. PMID: 21920469.
  • Lou Q, Li W, Efimov IR, The Role of Dynamic Instability and Wavelength in Arrhythmia Maintenance Revealed by Panoramic Optical Imaging with Blebbistatin versus 2,3-Butanedione Monoxime, AJP, 2012, 302(1): H262-9. PMID: 22037192.
  • Wang YT, Popović ZB, Efimov IR, Cheng Y. Longitudinal Study of Cardiac Remodelling in Rabbits Following Infarction. Can J Cardiol. 2012 Mar-Apr; 28(2): 230-238. PMID: 22265993.
  • Laughner JI, Sulkin MS, Wu Z, Deng CX, Efimov IR, Mechanisms for Failure of HIFU Ablation in Cardiac Tissue, Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol, 2012; 5(2): 409-16. PMID: 22322367.
  • Glukhov AV, Fedorov VV, Kalish PW, Ravikumar VK, Lou Q, Janks D, Schuessler RB, Moazami N, Efimov IR, Arrhythmogenic remodelling in human end-stage non-ischemic left ventricular cardiomyopathy, Circulation. 2012; 125(15): 1835-47. PMID: 2241207.
  • Lou Q, Janardhan A, Efimov IR. Remodeling of calcium handling in human heart failure. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012; 740:1145-74. PMID:  22453987.
  • Nikolaidou T, Aslanidi OV, Zhang H, Efimov IR. Structure-Function Relationship in the Sinus and Atrioventricular Nodes. Pediatr. Cardiol. 2012, Aug; 33(6): 890-9. PMID: 22391764.
  • Ambrosi CM, Fedorov VV, Schuessler RB, Rollins AM, Efimov IR, Quantification of Fiber Orientation in the Canine Atrial Pacemaker Complex using Optical Coherence Tomography. JBO, 2012 Jul; 17(7):071309. PMID: 22894470. 
  • Rantner LJ, Arevalo HJ, Constantino JL, Efimov IR, Plank G, Trayanova NA, Three-Dimensional Mechanisms of Increased Vulnerability to Electric Shocks in Myocardial Infarction: Altered Virtual Electrode Polarizations and Conduction Delay in the Peri-Infarct Zone. J. Physiol., 2012 Sep 15; 590: 4537-51. PMID: 22586222.
  • Wang YT, Efimov IR, Cheng Y, Electroporation Induced by Internal Defibrillation Shock with and without Recovery in Intact Rabbit Hearts, AJP: Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 2012 Aug; 303(4): H439-49. PMID: 22730387.
  • Laughner JI, Zhang S, Li H, Shao CC, Efimov IR. Mapping cardiac surface mechanics with structured light imaging. AJP: Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2012 Sep; 303(6): H712-20. PMID: 22796539.
  • Laughner JI, Ng FS, Sulkin MS, Arthur MA, Efimov IR. Processing and Analysis of Cardiac Optical Mapping Data Obtained with Potentiometric Dyes. AJP: Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2012 Oct; 303(7): H753-H765. PMID: 22821993.
  • Janardhan AH, Li W, Fedorov VV, Gutbrod SR, Yeung M, Walldorf M, Schuessler RB, Efimov IR. A Multi-Stage Electrotherapy To Terminate Ventricular Tachycardia With Lower Energy than a Biphasic Shock When Anti-Tachycardia Pacing Fails. JACC, 2012; 60(23): 2393-8.
  • Egorov YV, Glukhov AV, Efimov IR, Rosenshtraukh LV, Hypothermia-induced spatially discordant action potential duration alternans and arrhythmogenesis in non-hibernating versus hibernating mammals. AJP: Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2012, Oct 15;303(8):H1035-46. Epub 2012 Aug 10. PMID: 22886418.
  • Holzem KM, Efimov IR, Arrhythmogenic remodeling of activation and repolarization in the failing human heart. Europace, 2012 Nov; 14. PMID: 23104915.
  • Pietka TA, Sulkin MS, Kuda O, Wang W, Zhou D, Yamada KA, Yang K, Su1 X, Gross RW, Nerbonne JM, Efimov IR, Abumrad NA, CD36 influences myocardial Ca2+ homeostasis and phospholipid metabolism: Conduction anomalies in CD36 deficient mice during fasting. JBC, 2012 Nov 9; 287(46): 38901-12. PMID: 23019328.
  • Lou Q, Janks DL, Holzem K, Lang D, Onal B, Ambrosi CM, Fedorov VV, Wang IW, Efimov IR. Right Ventricular Arrhythmogenesis in Failing Human Heart: The Role of Conduction and Repolarization Remodeling. AJP: Heart and Circulatory Physiology; 2012 Dec; 303(12): H1426-34. PMID: 23042951.
  • Liu M, Gu L, Sulkin M, Liu H, Jeong EM, Greener I, Xie A, Efimov IR, Dudley SC, “Mitochondrial Dysfunction Causing Cardiac Sodium Channel Downregulation in Cardiomyopathy”, JMCC, 2013 Jan; 54:25-34.
  • Ambrosi CM, Yamada KA, Nerbonne JM, Efimov IR, Gender Dependent Differences in Molecular Electrophysiological Targets in Failing and Nonfailing Human Hearts, PLOS ONE; 2013;8(1): e54635.
  • Takasu O, Gaut JP, Watanabe E, To K, Fagley E, Sato B, Jarman S, Efimov IR, Janks DL, Srivastava A, Bhayani SB, Drewry A, Swanson PE, Hotchkiss RS, Mechanisms of Cardiac and Renal Dysfunction in Patients Dying of Sepsis. Am. J. of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2013 Mar 1; 187(5):509-17. PMID: 23348975.
  • Walmsley J, Rodriguez JF, Mirams GR, Burrage K, Efimov IR, Rodriguez B, mRNA expression levels in failing human hearts predict cellular electrophysiological remodeling: A population-based simulation study. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e56359. Epub 2013 Feb 20. PMID: 23437117.
  • Luo M, Guan X, Luczak ED, Lang D, Kutschke W, Zhan G, Yang J, Glynn P, Sossalla S, Swaminathan PD, Weiss RM, Yang B, Rokita AG, Maier LS, Efimov IR, Hund TJ, Anderson ME, Diabetes increases mortality after myocardial infarction by oxidizing CaMKII, JCI, 2013, Mar 1; 123(3): 1262-74. Epub 2013 Feb 15. PMID: 23426181.
  • Zhang S, Wang Y, Laughner J, Efimov IR, 3D absolute shape measurement of live rabbit hearts with a superfast two-frequency phase-shifting technique. 2013 Mar 11; 21(5): 5822-32. PMID: 23482151.
  • Glukhov AV, Uchida K, Efimov IR, Nichols CG. Functional roles of KATP channel subunits in metabolic inhibition. JMCC, 2013 Sep; 62: 90-8. PMID: 23624089.
  • Smith AW, Hoyne JD, Nguyen PK, McCreedy DA, Aly H, Efimov IR, Rentschler S, Elbert DL, Direct reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts to cardiomyocyte-like cells using Yamanaka factors on engineered poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels. 2013, 34(28): 6559–6571. PMID: 23773820.
  • Gutbrod S, Efimov IR, Two centuries of rescusitation, JACC, 2013; 62(22): 2110-1.
  • Laughner JI, Marrus SB, Zellmer ER, Weinheimer CJ, MacEwan MR, Cui SX, Nerbonne JM, Efimov IR. A Fully Implantable Pacemaker for the Mouse: From Battery to Wireless Power, PLOS One, 2013, 8(10): e76291.
  • Sulkin MS, Widder E, Shao C, Holzem KM, Gloschat C, Gutbrod SR, Efimov IR, 3D Printing Physiology Laboratory Technology. AJP: Heart, 2013 Dec;305(11):H1569-73.
  • Rutledge C, Ng FS, Sulkin MS, Greener I, Sergeyenko A, Liu H, Gemel J, Beyer E, Sovari A, Efimov IR, Dudley S. c-Src Kinase Inhibition Reduces Arrhythmia Inducibility and Gap Junction Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction. JACC, 2014 Mar 11; 63(9): 928-34. PMID: 24361364.
  • Chung HJ, Sulkin MS, Kim JS, Goudeseune C, Chao HY, Song JW, Yang SU, Hsu YY, Ghaffari R, Efimov IR, Rogers JA. Ultrathin, Stretchable, Multiplexing pH Sensor Arrays on Biomedical Devices With Demonstrations on Rabbit and Human Hearts Undergoing Ischemia. Advanced Healthcare Materials. Biomaterials. 2014 Jan; 3(1): 59-68. 
  •  Janardhan AH, Gutbrod SR, Li W, Lang D, Schuessler RB, Efimov IR, Multi-Stage Electrotherapy Delivered Through Chronically Implanted Leads Terminates Persistent Atrial Fibrillation with Lower Energy than a Single Biphasic Shock. JACC, 2014 Jan 7-14; 63(1): 40-8. PMID: 24076284.
  • Gutbrod S, Efimov IR, A Shocking Past: A Walk Through Generations Of Defibrillation Development. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2014 May;61(5):1466-73. PMID: 24759279.
  • Boukens BJ, Efimov IR, A Century Of Optocardiography. IEEE Rev Biomed Eng. 2014; 7: 115-25. PMID: 24158521.
  • Arakel EC, Brandenburg S, Uchida R, Zhang H, Lin YW, Kohl T, Schrul B, Sulkin MS, Efimov IR, Nichols CG, Lehnart SE, Schwappach B. Tuning the electrical properties of the heart by differential trafficking of KATP ion channel complexes. J. Cell Science, 2014 May 1; 127(Pt 9): 2106-19.
  • Xu L, Gutbrod SR, Bonifas AP, Su Y, Sulkin MS, Lu N, Chung HJ, Jang KI, Liu J, Ying M, Lu C, Webb RC, Kim JS, Laughner JI, Cheng H, Liu Y, Ameen A, Jeong JW, Kim GT, Huang Y, Efimov IR, Rogers JA. 3D multifunctional integumentary membranes for spatiotemporal cardiac measurements and stimulation across the entire epicardium. Nature Communications. 2014 Feb 25; 5: 3329. PMID: 24569383.
  • Ng FS, Holzem KM, Koppel AC, Wit AL, Peters NS, Efimov IR. Adverse Electrophysiological Response To Ischemia-Reperfusion In Human Heart Failure Is Associated With Remodeling Of Metabolic Gene Expression. Circulation: E&A. 2014 Oct; 7(5): 875-82.
  • Gutbrod SR, Sulkin MS, Rogers JA, Efimov IR. Patient-Specific Flexible and Stretchable Devices for Cardiac Diagnostics and Therapy. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2014 Aug; 115(2-3): 244-5.
  • Holzem KM, Madden EJ, Efimov IR. Human cardiac systems electrophysiology and arrhythmogenesis: iteration of experiment and computation. Europace. 2014 Nov;16 Suppl 4:iv77-iv85. doi: 10.1093/europace/euu264. PMID: 25362174.
  • Sulkin MS, Boukens BJ, Tetlow M, Gutbrod SR; Ng FS, Efimov IR, Mitochondrial depolarization and electrophysiological changes during ischemia in the rabbit and human heart. AJP: Heart & Circulatory Physiology, 2014 Oct 15; 307(8): H1178-86.
  • Sulkin MS, Yang F, Holzem KM, Van Leer B, Bugge C, Laughner JI, Green K, Efimov IR, Nanoscale Three-Dimentional Imaging of the Human Myocyte, J Struct Biol. 2014 Oct; 188(1): 55-60. PMID: 25160725.
  • Wu Z, Kumon RE, Laughner JI, Efimov IR, Deng CX, Electrophysiological Changes Correlated with Temperature Increases Induced by High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. 2015 Feb; 41(2): 432-48.
  • Gillers B, Aly H, Valenta T, Basler K, Christoffels VM, Efimov IR, Boukens BJ, Rentschler S. Canonical Wnt Signaling regulates atrioventricular junction programming and electrophysiological properties. Circulation Research. 2015 Jan 30;116(3):398-406.
  • Lang D, Kang C, Holzem K, Xiao M, Hwang HJ, Ewald GA, Yamada KA, Efimov IR, Arrhythmogenic remodeling of 2 versus 1 adrenergic signaling in human failing heart. Circulation: A&E, 2015 Apr;8(2): 409-19.
  • Gutbrod SR, Walton R, Gilbert S, Jaïs P, Hocini M, Haïssaguerre M, Dubois R, Bernus O, Efimov IR, Quantification of the transmural dynamics of atrial fibrillation by simultaneous endocardial and epicardial optical mapping in acute sheep model. Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, 2015; 8: 456-465.
  • Xu L, Gutbrod SR, Ma Y, Petrossians A, Liu Y, Webb RC, Fan JA, Yang Z, Xu R, Whalen JJ 3rd, Weiland JD, Huang Y, Efimov IR, Rogers JA. Materials and Fractal Designs for 3D Multifunctional Integumentary Membranes with Capabilities in Cardiac Electrotherapy. Adv Mater. 2015 Mar 11;27(10):1731-7.
  • Ripplinger CM, Efimov IR, Dual Vm/Ca Imaging of Premature Ventricular Contractions Bridging the Gap of Anatomical Scales, Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, 2015, in press.
  • Child N, Bishop MJ, Hanson B, Coronel R, Opthof T, Boukens BJ, Walton RD, Efimov IR, Bostock J, Hill Y, Rinaldi CA, Razavi R, Gill J, Taggart P. An activation-repolarization time metric to predict localized regions of high susceptibility to re-entry. Heart Rhythm. 2015 in press.
  • Kurian T, Doshi A, Kessman P, Nguyen B, Edwards J, Pieper S, Efimov I, Janardhan AH, Sanchez M. Rotors in Patients with Persistent Atrial Fibrillation: Case Report of a Left Atrial Appendage Rotor Identified by a Novel Computational Mapping Algorithm Integrated into 3-Dimensional Mapping and Termination of Atrial Fibrillation with Ablation. Card Electrophysiol Clin. 2015 in press.
  • Bear L, Cuculich PS, Bernus O, Efimov I, Dubois R. Introduction to Noninvasive Cardiac Mapping. Card Electrophysiol Clin. 2015 in press.
  • Holzem KM, Gomez JF, Glukhov AV, Madden EJ, Koppel AC, Ewald G, Trenor B, Efimov IR, Reduced Response to IKr Blockade and Altered hERG1a/1b Stoichiometry in Human Heart Failure. JMCC, 2015, in press.
  • Holzem KM, Marmerstein JT, Madden EJ, Efimov IR, Diet-induced obesity promotes altered signaling, exacerbating cardiac hypertrophy after pressure overload. Physiological Reports, 2015, in press.
  • 65. Boukens BJ, Sulkin MS, Gloschat CR, Ng FS, Vigmond E, Efimov IR.Transmural APD gradient synchronizes repolarization in the human left ventricular wall. Cardiovasc. Res. 2015, in press.   
  • 66. Koh A, Gutbrod SR, Meyers JD, Lu C, Webb RC, Shin G, Li Y, Kang SK, Huang Y, Efimov IR, Rogers JA. Ultrathin Injectable Sensors of Temperature, Thermal Conductivity, and Heat Capacity for Cardiac Ablation Monitoring. Adv Healthc Mater. 2015; PMID: 26648177
  • Fellow of the American Institute for Medical & Biological Engineering.
  • Fellow of the Heart Rhythm Society.
  • Fellow of the American Heart Association.
  • Served as a chartered member of National Institutes of Health Electrical Signaling, Transporters and Arrhythmia (ESTA) Study Section and NHLBI Systems Biology Collaborations review group.
  • Served on numerous expert panels of World Bank, Canadian Academies, British Heart Foundation, Russian Ministry of Science and Education, The Royal Society of New Zeeland, Swiss National Science Foundation, National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and other international funds and organizations.
  • Chair, Gordon Research Conference on Cardiac Arrhythmia Mechanisms
  • Astor Visiting Fellow, University of Oxford, UK
  • Washington University Chancellor’s Hartwell Prize for Innovative Research
  • The Doris J.W. Escher, MD Lecture in Medicine. Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital for the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY
  • The Walter Lillehei Lecture, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN
  • The Richard B. and Lynne V. Cheney Lecture, The George Washington University, Washington, DC
  • Visiting Professor, University of Bordeaux Segalen, Bordeaux, France.
  • Visiting Professor, University of Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.
  • Adjunct Professor, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Russia.
  • Past President, Russian American Medical Association
  • Past President, Russian American Scientists Association

Editorial Board Service

  • Served as Associate Editor of the American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology and IEEE Transactions in Biomedical Engineering.  
  • Served on the editorial boards of Circulation Research, Heart Rhythm Journal, Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, and other premier cardiovascular and biomedical engineering professional journals.
  • Reviewer for more than 50 different journals. 

Extramural Grant Service

  • NIH R01 HL115415, “Low Energy Defibrillation”.   Collaboration with John Rogers (University of Illinois Urbana Champaign).
  • NIH R01 HL114395, “Arrhythmogenic remodeling in human heart failure”.
  • NIH R01 HL126802 ”Exploration of arrhythmogenic triggers and substrates in heart failure”. Collaboration with Natalia Trayanova (Johns Hopkins University) and Julia Gorelik (University College London).
  • NIH R01 HL130212 “Wnt Signaling In Cardiac Conduction And Arrhythmogenesis”. Collaboration with Stacey Rentschler (Washington University in St. Louis).
  • Efimov, Igor R.; Krinski, Valentin I.; Nikolski, Vladimir P.; Method For Low-Voltage Termination Of Cardiac Arrhythmias By Effectively Unpinning Anatomical Reentries. US 8,175,702 B2. May 8, 2012. 
  • Efimov, Igor R.; Hucker, William; Cardiac Pacing Using The Inferior Nodal Extension. US 8,391,995 B2. Mar 5, 2013.  
  • Wessles, Richard; Sha, Qun; Efimov, Igor R.; Low-Energy Atrial Cardioversion Therapy With Controllable Pulse-Shaped Waveforms. US 8,473,051 B1. June 25, 2013.
  • Efimov, Igor R.; Ripplinger, Crystal M.; Fedorov, Vadim V.; Foyil, Kelley V.; Ambrosi, Christina. Method And Device For Low-Energy Termination Of Atrial Tachyarrhythmias. US 8,509,889 B2. Aug 13, 2013. 
  • Efimov, Igor; Li, Wenwen; Janardhan, Ajit. Method And Device For Three-Stage Atrial Cardioversion Therapy. US 8,560,066 B2. Oct 15, 2013. 
  • Efimov, Igor R.; Krinski, Valentin I.; Nikolski, Vladimir P.; Method For Low-Voltage Termination Of Cardiac Arrhythmias By Effectively Unpinning Anatomical Reentries. US 8,639,325 B2. Jan 28, 2014.
  • Efimov, Igor; Li, Wenwen; Janardhan, Ajit. Method And Device For Three-Stage Atrial Cardioversion Therapy. US 8,706,216 B2. Apr 22, 2014. Priority date Dec 11, 2007.
  • Efimov, Igor; Li, Wenwen; Janardhan, Ajit. Methods And Devices For Three-Stage Ventricular Therapy. US 8,874,208 B2. Oct 28, 2014.